5 Unexpected Things I’ve Learned About People, Work & Organizations

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Photo: @jamieinemo at Instagram

What we need to know about our line of work — can never be conveyed completely in a classroom setting.

Most of us find that scores of valuable lessons are learned through our experiences. In some cases there are simply topic gaps. For example, a course entitled “consulting for success” was not a part of my curriculum, but it should have been. In other cases the guidance or advice is shared, but delivered far too early, as we require a certain breadth of experience to comprehend its importance.

Ultimately, we discover many of these vital lessons on our own. On some occasions, we realize just in the nick of time. On other occasions, we may not be quite as fortunate.

Here are a few of the lessons I’ve learned over time:

  1. No matter how driven or successful, work cannot be corralled into a neat, confined space.
    Early in my career, I was caught in an elevator with the most senior level employee in my department. (Her office was just a stone’s throw from mine and I would only see her breezing to meetings.) Normally stoic, on that particular day she was uncharacteristically candid, “In this organization you need to learn to leave your personal life at the door. Remember that, Marla.” She then huffed out of the elevator. As the doors closed, I was so struck by her admission I forgot to exit. I realized years on, that work affects us broadly — because of its central importance in the operation of our everyday lives. Work-life balance is really more of an integration challenge. Moreover, when an organization ignores this fact, undo pressure and stress often develop. Everyone loses, as she likely felt in that moment.
  2. Never make assumptions about people how people feel about their work.
    I left school believing that my training and reasoning skills, could help me solve most of the work life problems that I encountered. However, that belief was inherently flawed. Over time, I came to realize that the true nature of someone else’s experience, isn’t obvious. The only way to gain access and understand that perspective, is to develop a trusting relationship and inquire. True feelings and dynamics are often shrouded — and leading with curiosity is vital.
  3. Growing pains aren’t just for kids. They apply to work life as well.
    My father was a family physician, so I was well versed concerning the pains experienced as tendons stretch to accommodate bone growth. I’ve also realized that organizations and careers paths, suffer from this dynamic as well. As individuals & organizations approach important inflection points, they must stretch to meet the challenge. This can become very uncomfortable.
  4. Goals which once motivated us, can also trip us up.
    If you’ve ever been stuck trying to force your way forward, you may have experienced this issue. Sometimes the goals that we seek, actually begin to hold us back. This happens when we see things one way — and cannot budge to see an alternative path. In this case, it may be time to let that goal go.
  5. Authenticity isn’t always a good thing.
    I’ve worked with more than one individual, whose authentic “brand” or work style, literally stood in the way of progress. I’m not referring to awful people, who fail to possess concern for their employees or colleagues. I’m speaking of talented, kind individuals who have a working style or flow, that happens to affect others adversely. When made aware of how their quirks derailed others, they are usually horrified. (Know yourself and how you work best. But, also build awareness of how that might impacts others. If you aren’t completely sure — ask.)

Work life is a journey.

If approached with the right mindset, it is also a non-stop learning experience.

What have you learned about work life that was unexpected? Share in comments.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist who focuses on empowering work through the development of a strong foundation. She is a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in various outlets including the Harvard Business Review, Talent Zoo, Forbes, Quartz and The Huffington Post.

Why I’m Counting on Small Rituals Right Now

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PipChristie@Unsplash

Rituals are the formulas by which harmony is restored.- Terry Tempest Williams

We planted four clump, yellow rose bushes in our backyard garden last summer. They are situated in an area where for some odd reason, everything seems to perish. I have a number of concocted theories as to why this continues to happen. Our home is well over 70 years old and from what I discern from original plans, a garage once stood near that area. Maybe this contributes somehow. Or there is possibly too much sun. Too little water. Or our 100 pound German Shepard stomps over the plantings when chasing her tennis ball.

I’ve just surveyed the situation. It’s not looking all that hopeful.

The point is not the roses, but that the ritual of the garden occupies my mind in a manner that frees me for a stretch of time. Small rituals makes us more comfortable, more centered — even when a sense of instability may exist all around us. For you, this may mean walking around the block after dinner, game night, sitting on your balcony in the morning or a quiet cup of coffee before you write a report. You could call these routines, but somehow these idiosyncratic actions hold more value than that label would imply.

Whatever that ritual is, no matter how small it may seem — it matters. Small rituals help define who we are as individuals. They help align who we are with our surroundings. I feel they likely make us better contributors, as well.

When we get back to our desks, the rest will still be there.

But for that moment, I’m rooting for the roses.

Strategy: Rituals

  • Do you have a small ritual that helps you remain productive right now?
  • Do you feel rituals have become more important during this crisis?
  • Does your organization or team have a ritual that helps them along?

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist who explores the value of core stability to empower work & career. She helps people & teams build a stronger work life foundation through The Core Masterclass. A charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program, she has been featured at the Harvard Business Review, Talent Zoo and The Huffington Post.

The Peculiar Power of Narratives

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Every story has another way of being told. – Krishna

Notes
As human beings we naturally create narratives. These are the stories that connect our experiences and can become fodder for the voice that we hear in our own minds. As things shift and sputter within our own work lives, narratives can become very active. The shock of our new lives and the uncertainty of how the future might unfold — is ample fuel to build them.

Narratives can take on many useful forms and can be positive. For example, a smart strategic narrative can fuel an entire organization and a well-crafted career narrative can support career paths. Yet on the flip side, narratives can be negative — causing great distraction. This brand of narrative, can play havoc with our own self-image, our work and our work-based relationships.

Most of us have built a narrative about who we are and how we work. Your team may harbor a set concerning who they are as a group, as well. Ditto for leadership.

This is not a surprise.

Stories are central within our history as human beings. (Interestingly, this tendency to connects the dots, or pattern seek is named narrative bias.) Even while we sleep we seem to weave a story, comprised of the bits and pieces of our day, blended with our unique past. On a basic level, we build narratives to make sense of the world. They are much like shorthand. At their best — narratives can build confidence and power our paths. Yet, at their worst, they can become misleading and destructive.

The problem arises when the narratives get in the way of our own development or our work.

Narratives have become a very present fixture in my work as a coach. This is because it became evident that narratives affect nearly every individual, team and organization. Moreover, the thread of narratives was a common blockade to progress, and can become active when we deal with people, teams and even other organizations.

When the narrative surrounds our own paths, skills & abilities — an entirely new problem can emerge. In this scenario, the stories we tell ourselves or others that other might build about us begin to define us. When you hit a pothole in our paths, these narratives seem to be waiting ringside.

Let’s take advantage of the current pause to identify them — and make an attempt to challenge the negative variety.

Only then can we unravel their power and move forward without them.

Strategy: Narrative Identification

  • Identify a narrative that affects you personally as a contributor. This narrative could speak to your skills/traits/abilities, your work, how you feel about yourself or how you believe others see you.
  • Identify a narrative that affects your team. This can include your team’s internal functioning, and how it behaves with adjacent teams/functions or clients.
  • Try to pinpoint how these narratives developed. This could be rooted in an experience, a conversation or possibly hearsay.
  • Challenge the narrative. This involves challenging the narrative by posing an alternative explanation and possible outcomes.

Our innate need to make sense of the world, can make us susceptible to built narratives. Be ever-vigilant, to recognize if they helping or hurting your work life.

Author’s note: The Core File is now featured at LinkedIn.

Please note: All posts are solely owned by the author. Reprinting (other than re-blogging at another WordPress blog) is by permission only.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist, diagnostician & speaker, who explores the value of core stability to empower our work. A charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program, she has been featured at the Harvard Business Review, Talent Zoo and The Huffington Post.

10 Stirring Quotes I’m Turning to Right Now

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I’m not usually a list person. Or a quote person. Or a “jump on the bandwagon” person. Yet, these are extraordinary times and I seem to be becoming all of these things. I suppose that different times, create different needs.

You (and possibly your team), may also require more support to tackle the day with positivity & fortitude. A dose of guidance, from those who you have been through it all, might help us.

So, here goes.
A few quotes of the moment. One from yours truly, at the closing.

  1. Do what you can, with what you have, where you are. –  Teddy Roosevelt
  2. Difficulties mastered are opportunities won. – Winston Churchill
  3. The best way out, is always through. – Robert Frost
  4. From caring, comes courage. – Lao Tzu
  5. There is nothing like staying home for real comfort. – Jane Austen
  6. Attempt the impossible to improve your work. – Bette Davis
  7. Wherever a man turns, he can find someone who needs him. – Albert Schweitzer
  8. The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge, but imagination. – Albert Einstein
  9. If you are going through hell, keep going. – Winston Churchill
  10. Thinking will not overcome fear, but action can. – W. Clement Stone

11. While our lives may have increasing boundaries —
our minds remain infinite.

Share your stirring favorite in comments.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist who focuses on empowering work through the development of a strong foundation. She is a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in various outlets including the Harvard Business Review, Talent Zoo, Forbes, Quartz and The Huffington Post.

 

How Work (and Other Things) Might Help Us Cope.

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Photo by Cathal Mac an Bheatha on Unsplash

It is Spring 2020. We are all struggling to establish a new normal — in times that are anything but normal.

I’ll spare you, and will refrain from sharing advice about how to work remotely. I’m wagering that many of us are well beyond this and are not open to another opportunistic pitch to build someone’s client list. We are in the midst of history being written. That alone, demands that we peel away the layers.

Many of us simply want to protect ourselves, our families and quite possibly our psychological resources. Resources such as hope, self efficacy and resilience, that can be adversely affected as we practice social distancing.

As an alternative, I’ll share few thoughts on how to stay on a somewhat even keel. (Disclaimer: These are my own. They do not have to be yours.) Not surprisingly, this does include work — and seeking a daily measure of joy. I am referring to the type of work, that feeds your soul and occupies your mind. I am also referring to the trusted elements of our lives to which we turn, when feeling unsettled.

What to try now:

  • If possible, continue to do the work you love to do. I’ve just listened to Coldplay’s Chris Martin live streaming an impromptu home-based concert at Instagram (@Coldplay). As a psychologist, I’m thankful that he can continue to share his gift to help others. Try to do the same. Work on topics that bring meaning & value to you.
  • Reach out. Limit feelings of isolation & distance. Technology can obviously work with us here. I couldn’t love Zoom more than I do today, in this very moment. I intend to contact the clients & colleagues, I’ve come to respect over the years. Utilize Facebook video to call friends who are alone (quite reliable) and text your neighbors. I’m hoping this helps in some way.
  • “Lean in” to the things that bring joy. Whether this is music, film, reading, art, walking, observing birds, podcasts, comedy, singing, blogging, or crafting. Do these things when you have a moment. James Altucher just shared his reading list as we self-isolate. Shuttered Broadway performers are singing for us. Museums have shared virtual tours. Improvise. Build these into your daily routine.
  • Complete something. Anything. When we cannot control our circumstances, self-efficacy suffers. This can lead to feelings of helplessness. While you distance, complete smaller projects/tasks that you can pace. Bring feelings of mastery into your “new normal”.

My best to everyone. We are all struggling. Share your concerns.

What are you doing right now to support your psychological foundation?

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist. She is a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in various outlets including the Harvard Business Review, Talent Zoo, Forbes, Quartz and The Huffington Post.

 

 

A Kinder Take on Goals (and Resolutions) Using Positive Psychology

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Author’s Note: I believe this strategy can help us as we deal with rapid change during the current crisis. Work life is different now. Our view of progress must also adjust.

We all engage in goal setting. Historically, it’s simply what we do.

Yet, goals can either help or hurt us — depending on their inherent ability to energize. New Year’s resolutions can suffer the same outcome. They are essentially goals, wrapped in a loaded, time-stamped, end-of-the-year package. As a work life strategist, I’ve advised clients to refine or even lose goals that no longer serve them. Resolutions can also let us down and often fail to direct us in a meaningful way.

I’m wondering if we can craft work-focused resolutions that are better for us?

One strategy, is to apply what we already know about positive psychology. With its roots in humanistic psychology, positive psychology theorizes that we have the power to re-frame our life experiences to help us become more positive and productive.

Resolutions could stand a re-framing. So let’s follow this thread.

Consider the following passage:

“Positive psychology is…a call for psychological science and practice to be as concerned with strength as with weakness; as interested in building the best things in life as in repairing the worst; and as concerned with making the lives of normal people fulfilling as with healing pathology,” – Christopher Peterson

We could re-frame resolutions with a nod toward what is right, and not wrong with  work life. As we look toward the future, we might recognize what has worked during the previous year. (Sustaining energy requires that we actively acknowledge the good.)

Taking the time to remind ourselves of what we already have already accomplished, can provide the fuel that we need to build both energy and resilience. So — ask yourself: What brought you a feeling of accomplishment recently? A sense of meaning? Joy?

First, carefully consider what you have already achieved, by drafting a list of your steps already taken in the right direction. (Remember, no step is too small to acknowledge.) Celebrate the successes and take something constructive from failures or disappointments. Secondly, craft a few behaviorally-defined steps for the future, which build upon progress. Try to avoid broad, overwhelming resolutions such as “Find a better job.” Be specific, yet supportive, of your on-going journey.

Integrate what you have learned from both the highs and lows of 2019.

Then think of yourself actively completing these goals.
What are you actually doing?
What are the specific steps you will take?

Here’s how this might look regarding one of my 2020 resolutions: To identify opportunities for collaboration regarding my work in core stability. Please note: I did not identify the right collaboration opportunity during 2019. There were stumbling blocks, yet there was modest progress. And acknowledging the latter is important.

Progress in 2019:

  • Continued to refine concept message.
  • Engaged in many useful conversations (virtually and IRL) regarding core stability as applied to both people & organizations.
  • Wrote & published the concept’s “origin story” and guiding principles.
  • Began identifying HR/HR Tech micro-influencers whose work aligns with my own.

What’s Next in 2020:

  • Hone list of possible HR/HR Tech contacts.
  • Reach out on social media, where possible.
  • Write an email a week regarding potential collaborations.
  • Schedule one conversation per week regarding possible collaborations.
  • Continue to define research possibilities: subjects, scope, funding.

Let me know if this process brings you any “resolution” success.
Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist and a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her Core Coaching Series — helps people & organizations build a stronger work life foundation. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in the Harvard Business Review, Forbes, BBC Work Life, Quartz and The Huffington Post.

How Letting Go (of Goals) Can Help Your Work Life

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“Some of us think holding on makes us strong, but sometimes it is letting go.” – Herman Hesse

Most of us are challenged to let go of disappointment within our work lives.

We bemoan the collaborations that didn’t prove fertile, the target we may have missed  or the client that got away. We are taught repeatedly to “stick with things” and to “never give up“. Yet, I’ve seen this strategy backfire and cause a great deal of stress.

As a psychologist, I’ve seen this unusual type of guilt — “goal guilt” as I like to call it — affect all types of contributors, from those new to the workforce, to seasoned CEOs and entrepreneurs. In may cases, the unfulfilled elements in the past, simply get in the way of a fulfilling, more work life in the future.

Invariably, the elements that we value the most, that live at our core, cause us the most trouble.

Big, audacious goals are touted as a cornerstone of our work lives. (Some advice here, on how to set them wisely.) We are encouraged not only to set them, but to live alongside them with each and every breath we draw. I’m good with goals and we all need them. Yet, just like the battery that feeds our favorite device — goals have a “life span”. They reach a state, where they are no longer viable or serve as a meaningful motivator. How this affects us is something we should pause and note.

People also cycle in and out, of our work lives. There are expectations attached to them as well — and not all of these might have been fulfilled. There may have been a mismatch, or we (or they) have changed or circumstances influenced the outcomes. Our time with them may have felt unproductive and frustrating, but inevitably, “it was what it was”.

All of this holding on requires energy and “headspace”. Yet, our attention cannot be infinitely divided. (Research has shown that our minds burns through 20% of our energy requirements though it represents only 2% of body mass.) In a sense, wasting that precious energy, is squandering our own potential.

Sometimes we simply must move on — and let go.

How you would describe your own history in this regard? Do you find it easy to let go? Or are you challenged to do so? If you lean toward the stubborn and notably inflexible end of the continuum, the process can be arduous. However, all of this hanging on doesn’t serve us. It can bring a fog that clouds new opportunities and can fuel bitterness. Nevertheless, turning away and leaving these things behind can be challenging and bring a certain sadness.

Letting go of people and goals that define yesterday can be a good thing. We must challenge our mindset to allow us to do so.

Here are a few thoughts concerning what letting go is and isn’t:

  • Letting go of a goal isn’t a defeat.
  • It does not signal failure on your part.
  • It may mean that the goal no longer serves you.
  • It may mean you have committed your best effort — and the outcomes/rewards weren’t there.
  • It is closure.
  • It is about shifting your energies to fertile ground.
  • It is about becoming more agile.
  • It can foster resilience.
  • It can build a sense of adventure; restore a certain hope and confidence in the future.
  • It can mark the moment of a new beginning.

In many cases letting go, creates room for pursuits that are far more rewarding — and carves out a place for the goals and people that will help move us forward.

I would say that softens the blow.

Is letting go challenging for you? Have you mastered the art? Share your experiences with our community.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist. She is a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in various outlets including Talent Zoo, Forbes, Quartz and The Huffington Post.

Moving On From a Negative Narrative That Just Isn’t You

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“Letting go means to come to the realization that some people are part of your history, but not your destiny.”  — Steve Maraboli

The people that surround us affect our lives. Our managers, colleagues and clients — all help to create the supporting stage in which we find ourselves. When we face tense workplace situations, such as a misstep or differences in opinion, the eventual outcome can become an important inflection point. When a narrative emerges that doesn’t accurately reflect the real you or situation, things can quickly become troubling. But, What should happen next?

  • If possible discuss the situation openly.
  • Explore what might have led to that point and if the situation can be saved.
  • Be clear that what is happening is not acceptable, that it is uncomfortable and possibly destructive.
  • Provide information to counter the confusion.
  • Stay calm, yet steadfast.

But if you suspect that the poorly deemed decision or opinion has begun to negatively define you and that definition cannot be revised — it may be time to seriously reconsider your surroundings.

When a narrative appears set in stone, it can become an unhealthy place. Ultimately, you should be surrounded by those who see the best in you (and you in them).

If necessary, explore a new stage that fits.

A narrative shouldn’t define you — unless it is your own.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist. She is a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in various outlets including Talent Zoo, Forbes, Quartz and The Huffington Post.

 

What You Need to Know About Yourself to Help You With (Workplace) Change

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The wind of change, whatever it is, blows most freely through an open mind. — Katharine Whitehorn

I’ve been told more than once, that I’m not the best role model concerning change. (To be candid, I agree with the characterization.) I balk at the mere whiff of a change — holding on to hope that it won’t ever come to pass.

Then adjusting my course will not be necessary.

Honestly, this can become a problem.

As you may have read in this post, I’ve struggled with even the smallest of changes, muddling along until the “new normal” finally appears. Until that moment, I feel somewhat annoyed and completely out of sync. For better or worse, my “go to” reaction is to keep my world frozen, until I can carefully consider every aspect of the situation. Unfortunately, holding time at bay usually isn’t often an option. (This also irks me. Why can’t things go at my pace?)

Regardless, I firmly acknowledge the value of flexing our workplace “change muscles”. However, knowing ourselves is likely the very first place to look when building this skill set. I believe that we all have a leading predisposition when faced with change at work — representing both our collected experiences and temperament. Of course, this influences our leading strategy when reacting to change, as well.

That’s where things get tricky. (If you manage others, just reflect on what this means for your team.) We need to come to an understanding of our own tendencies and recognize how this might affect our response.

This realization, is a crucial step.

As a consultant, who advocates for change — here are a few of the predispositions I’ve observed over the years:

  • Piners or Grievers. These individuals lament the coming of change, even when it is inevitable or necessary. They may grieve for the roles, policies, procedures and co-workers of days gone by. They do move on eventually — but often with decreased fulfillment, satisfaction and a measure of sadness.
  • Researchers. An unbridled penchant to gather information is the leading response for this group — as looking at the issue from all angles often helps them move on. Unfortunately, a leading by-product of this view is “analysis paralysis”. Another issue: time may not be a negotiable. (This would be where I fall, although I pine at the start.)
  • Supporters or Embracers. These individuals are generally open to change and feel excited to contemplate the future. They may not be the primary driver of change, yet are happy to see the possibilities and help things move forward.
  • Alarmists. For these individuals an impending change triggers intense feelings of urgency. This could lead to premature or risky career behaviors that negatively affect them longer-term. (Such as quitting on a whim, etc.)
  • Dreamers. This group always manages to see the best in the current situation, even when there is overwhelming evidence to move on and accept some kind of change. (I would add there is a mild level of complacency operating here). Because of this perspective, they might miss opportunities to properly plan a place for themselves in the new “order” of things.
  • Observers. Usually quiet and calm, these individuals take a solid “wait and see” approach. They rarely panic — and prefer to watch things unfold organically. They might superficially support the change, but may eventually exit if the change eventually is perceived as negative.
  • Aggressors or Terminators. These individuals feel anger when they are faced with an unexpected change. They may become a strong “naysayer”, vehemently opposing a change and could exhibit negative behaviors without reflection.

After I drafted these, I searched for other frameworks that capture how we process change. I happened upon the Kubler-Ross Change Curve, which applies the seminal model of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross concerning grief, to change efforts within organizations. (This theory states that we all move through specified phases when dealing with change, rather than identifying a leading emotion that we deal with over time.) I thought it wise to mention it here.

Where do you fall? Have I missed your leading orientation toward change? Share your style in comments.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial & Organizational Psychologist. She is a Consulting Psychologist at Allied Talent. A charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program, her posts on workplace topics have appeared at The Huffington Post, US News & World Report and The World Economic Forum

15 Quotes to Get Your Head in the Right Place at Work

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Photo by Norbert Levajsics on Unsplash

Not every day can begin with unbridled enthusiasm.

We all have days when our emotional status is just not in the “right place”. Personally, I’m never sure about the root cause of my malaise. It could be anything I suppose, a stressful interaction that has lingered, a bad dream or the cheesecake I had last night for dessert.

However, it can spell trouble for my day. Changing the dynamic, becomes the first order of business. Sometimes, I opt to read New Yorker cartoons.  Sometimes, I call a trusted colleague or friend.

If all else fails, I read quotes about work life, career and inspiration.

Here are some of my favorite “mood changing” quotes.

I hope they offer you what you might need to impact your day for the better.

  1. Choose a job you love and you’ll never have to work a day in your life. – Confucius
  2. It’s not the load that breaks you down, it’s the way you carry it. – Lou Holtz
  3. Do your work with your whole heart and you will succeed – there is so little competition. – Elbert Hubbard
  4. All things are difficult before they are easy. – Thomas Fuller
  5. The harder I work, the luckier I get – Samuel Goldwyn
  6. Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don’t recognize them. – Ann Landers
  7. The secret of getting ahead, is getting started. – Mark Twain
  8. It is not in the stars to hold our destiny, but in ourselves. – William Shakespeare
  9. When we no longer can change a situation, we are challenged to change ourselves. – Viktor E. Frankl
  10. There are two kinds of people, those who do the work and those who take the credit. Try to be in the first group; there is less competition there. – Indira Gandhi
  11. Study the past, if you would divine the future. – Confucius
  12. A career is wonderful, but you can’t curl up with it on a cold night. – Marilyn Monroe
  13. Food, love, career and mothers, the four major guilt groups. – Cathy Guisewite
  14. Believe you can and you are halfway there. – Theodore Roosevelt
  15. Change your thoughts and you change your world. – Norman Vincent Peale

Share your favorites in the comments section. I am sure I have missed more than a few classics.

Dr. Marla Gottschalk is an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist who focuses on empowering work through the development of a strong foundation. She is a charter member of the LinkedIn Influencer Program. Her thoughts on work life have appeared in various outlets including the Harvard Business Review, Talent Zoo, Forbes, Quartz and The Huffington Post.